If the client didn’t specifically request a particular form Apache will use the form given by the AddEncoding directive. To make this. The Apache mime module offers two options: AddType and AddEncoding. Both options are used in a similar way meaning that both react on. Specifically, you need to enable MultiViews with the Options directive and you need to specify your encoding types with the AddEncoding directive.
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This module is used to assign content metadata to the content selected for an HTTP response by mapping patterns in the URI or filenames to the metadata values.
For example, the filename extensions of content files often define the content’s Internet media type, language, character set, and content-encoding. This information is sent in HTTP messages containing that content and used in content negotiation when selecting alternatives, such addenoding the user’s preferences are respected when choosing one of several possible contents to serve.
Respectively they set the character set, content-encoding, content-language, and media-type content-type of documents. The directive TypesConfig is used to specify a file which also maps extensions onto media types. Note that changing the metadata for a file does not change the value of the Last-Modified header. Thus, previously cached copies may still be used by a client or proxy, with the previous headers.
If you change the metadata language, content type, character set or encoding you may need to ‘touch’ affected files updating their last modified date to ensure that all visitors are receive addenncoding corrected content headers. Files can have more than one extension; the order of the extensions is normally irrelevant. For example, if the file welcome. If more than one extension is given that maps appache the same type of metadata, then the one to the right will be used, except for languages and dadencoding encodings.
Languages and content encodings are treated accumulative, because one can assign more than one language or encoding to a particular resource. For example, the file welcome. Care acdencoding be taken when a file with multiple extensions gets associated with both a media-type and a handler.
This will usually result in the request being handled by the module associated with the handler. For example, if the. For example, if you wish to addencodijg the file foo. A file of a particular media-type can additionally be encoded a particular way to simplify transmission over the Internet. While this usually will refer to compression, such as gzipit can also refer to encryption, such adencoding pgp or to an encoding such as UUencoding, which is designed for transmitting a binary file in an ASCII text format.
The Content-Encoding entity-header field is used as a modifier to the media-type. When present, its value indicates what additional content codings have been applied to the entity-body, and thus what decoding mechanisms must be applied in order to obtain the media-type referenced by the Content-Type header field.
Content-Encoding is primarily used to allow a document to be compressed without losing the identity of its underlying media type.
By using more than one file extension see section above about multiple file extensionsyou can indicate that a file is of a particular addencodinhand also has a particular encoding. For example, you may have a file which is a Microsoft Word document, which is pkzipped to reduce its size.
Apache sends a Content-encoding addencocing with the resource, in order to tell the client browser about the encoding method. In addition to file type and the file encoding, another important piece of information is what language a particular document is in, and in what character set the file should be displayed.
apache – Using AddEncoding x-gzip .gz without actual files – Server Fault
For example, the document might be written in the Vietnamese alphabet, or in Cyrillic, and should be displayed as such. This apaache, also, is transmitted in HTTP headers. Filename extensions that are only associated using the AddHandlerAddInputFilter or AddOutputFilter directives may be included or excluded from matching by using the MultiviewsMatch directive.
To convey this further information, Apache optionally sends a Content-Language header, to specify the language that the document is in, and can append additional information onto the Content-Type header to indicate the particular character set that should be used to correctly render the information.
The language specification is the two-letter abbreviation for the language. The charset is the name of the particular character set which should be used. The AddCharset directive maps the given filename extensions to the specified content charset the Addenocding registered name for a given character encoding. This mapping is added to any already in force, overriding any mappings that already exist for the same extension.
Then the document xxxx. The AddCharset directive is useful for both to inform the client about the character encoding of the document so that the document can be interpreted and displayed appropriately, and for content negotiationwhere the server returns one from several documents based on the client’s charset preference. The extension argument is case-insensitive and can be wddencoding with or without a leading dot.
Filenames may have multiple extensions and the extension argument will be compared against each of them. This will cause filenames containing addencodinf. Z extension to be marked as encoded with x-compress. Old clients expect x-gzip and x-compresshowever the standard dictates that they’re equivalent to gzip and compress respectively.
Apache does content encoding comparisons by ignoring any leading x.
When responding with an encoding Apache will use whatever form i. If the client didn’t specifically request a particular form Apache will use the form given by the AddEncoding directive.
To make this long story short, addencodibg should always use x-gzip and x-compress for these two specific encodings.
Apache: The Definitive Guide, 3rd Edition by Peter Laurie, Ben Laurie
More recent encodings, such as deflateshould be specified without the x. Files having the name extension will be served by the specified handler-name. For example, to activate CGI scripts with the file extension.
Once that has been put into your httpd. AddInputFilter maps the filename extension extension to the filters which will process client requests and POST input when they are received by the server. This is in addition to any filters defined elsewhere, including the SetInputFilter directive. This mapping is merged over any already in force, overriding any mappings that already exist for the same extension.
If more than one filter is specified, they must be separated by semicolons in the order in which they should process the content. The filter is case-insensitive. The AddLanguage directive maps the given filename extension to the specified content language. This directive overrides any mappings that already exist for the same extension. Z will be treated as being a compressed English document as will the document xxxx.
Although the content language is reported to the client, the browser is unlikely to use this information.
The AddLanguage directive is more useful for content negotiationwhere the server returns one from several documents based on the client’s language preference.
If multiple language assignments are made for the same extension, the last one encountered is the one that is used. That is, for the case of:. The AddOutputFilter directive maps the filename extension extension to the filters which will process responses from the server before they are sent to the client.
For example, the following configuration will process all. The filter argument is case-insensitive. Note that when defining a set of filters using the AddOutputFilter directive, any definition made will replace any previous definition made by the AddOutputFilter directive. The AddType directive maps the given filename extensions onto the specified content type.
This is useful in situations, e. This directive primarily configures the content types generated for static files served out of the filesystem.
For resources other than static files, where the generator of the response typically specifies a Content-Type, this directive has no effect.
The DefaultLanguage directive tells Apache that all resources in the directive’s scope e. This allows entire directory trees to be marked as containing Dutch content, for instance, without having to rename each file.
Note that unlike using extensions to specify languages, DefaultLanguage can only specify a single language. If no DefaultLanguage directive is in force and a file does not have any language extensions aapache configured by AddLanguagethen no Content-Language header field will be generated.
Multiviews allows a request for a file, e. Charset, Content-Type, Language, or Encoding. This is the strictest implementation with the fewest unexpected side effects, and addencodijg the default behavior. If all other factors are equal, the smallest file will be served, e.
Apache Module mod_mime
This can cause unpredictable results, such as serving. For example, the following configuration will allow handlers and filters to participate in Multviews, but will exclude unknown files:. The RemoveCharset directive removes any character set associations for files with the adfencoding extensions. The RemoveEncoding directive removes any encoding associations for files with the given extensions.
An example of its use might be:. This will cause foo. RemoveEncoding directives are processed after any AddEncoding directives, so it is possible they may undo the effects of the latter if both occur within the same directory configuration. The RemoveHandler directive removes any handler associations for files with the given extensions. This has the effect of returning. The RemoveInputFilter directive removes any input filter associations for files with the given extensions.
The RemoveLanguage directive removes any language associations for files with the given extensions. The RemoveOutputFilter directive removes any output filter associations for files with the given extensions. The RemoveType directive removes any media type associations for files with the given extensions. This will remove any special handling of. RemoveType directives are processed after any AddType directives, so it is possible they may undo the effects of the latter if both occur within the same directory configuration.
The TypesConfig directive sets the location of the media types configuration file. File-path is relative to the ServerRoot. This file sets the default list of mappings from filename extensions to content types.
Most administrators use the mime. This simplifies the httpd. You should not edit the mime. The file contains lines in the format of the arguments to an AddType directive:.